Naturalism

14 Discovered artists
As an epoch term, naturalism refers to a current that dominated literature and fine arts in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The term, however, is occasionally also used to describe works which, in style, intention, and mode of presentation, correspond to naturalism, although they have arisen at another time.

The essential characteristic of naturalistic art is the effort to present reality as accurately as possible, untarnished and true to reality. This also includes the depiction of social and human misery. A typical motif of naturalistic painting is everyday scenes from the life of low social strata. In the art of art, they have only been highly idealized and idyllized, if at all. However, completely unrealistic motifs can also be depicted in a naturalistic way if, for example, size ratios, colors and perspectives are reproduced in a natural way.

Antoine Castagnary's manifesto "La philosophie du salon de 1857", published in 1858, was the first theoretical text to deal with the still recent current. Subsequently the French painter Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) played an important role in the theory of art and naturalistic art. In addition he was one of his most important representatives. Among the most important naturalistic artists from Germany were Max Liebermann (1847-1935), Paul Weber (1823-1916) and Käthe Kollwitz (1867-1945).



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